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[Hindi] Munshi Premchand (few books)

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Post time: 15-10-2017 19:28:59
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Editado por Pedro_P en 10-12-2018 04:37 PM





एक महत्काव्यात्मक उपन्यास । जैसा कि नाम से स्पष्ट है प्रेमचन्द ने इस संसार को विशाल रंगभूमि माना है, जिस पर जीवन रूपी विराट नाटक खेला जाता है । इस नाटक का सूत्रधार ईश्वर है और सांसारिक प्राणी उसके अभिनेता ।"रंगभूमि प्रेमचन्द का ही नहीं बल्कि हिन्दुस्तान का सबसे अच्छा उपन्यास है। रंगभूमि में कहानी है, काव्य है, फिलॉसफी है, मनोविज्ञान है और ढूंढने पर नीति, धर्म और सोशलिज्म का भी अनुभव मिल जाएगा । रंगभूमि हमारी जिन्दगी का खाका है । कला और तत्वज्ञान की दृष्टि से रंगभूमि प्रेमचन्द का मास्टरपीस है । वह शरीर पर आत्मा की विजय का शंखनाद है, वह सम्पूर्ण जीवन का एक चित्र है l







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Post time: 4-11-2018 18:02:03
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The act of donating a cow in charity, or Godaan, is considered to be an important Hindu ritual, as it helps in absolving one of sin, and incurring divine blessings. It is nevertheless, not essential. The word dharma has been used 34 times in the novel in different context and by different characters. The word connotes as religion, moral principles and values, conscience and duty. It has a different meaning to each character


Godan (Hindi: गोदान, gōdān, lit. 'Cow donation') is a Hindi novel by Munshi Premchand, translated into English as The Gift of a Cow.
It was first published in 1936 and is considered one of the greatest Hindi novels of modern Indian literature. Themed around the socio economic deprivation as well as the exploitation of the village poor, the novel was the last complete novel of Premchand. It was translated into English in 1957 by Jai Ratan and P. Lal translation; a 1968 translation by Gordon C. Roadarmel is now considered "a classic in itself".

The story revolves around many characters representing the various sections of Indian community. The peasant and rural society is represented by the family of Hori Mahato and his family members which includes Dhania (wife), Rupa and Sona (daughters), Gobar (son), Jhunia (daughter-In-law). The story starts from a point where Hori has a deep desire of having a cow as other millions of poor peasants. He purchased, on debt of Rs. 80, a cow from Bhola, a cowherd. Hori tried to cheat his brothers for 10 rupees. This in turn led to a fight between his wife and his younger brother, Heera's wife. Jealous of Hori, his younger brother Heera poisoned the cow and ran away because of the fear of police action. When the police came inquiring the death of the cow, Hori took a loan and paid the bribe to the police and was able to clear off his younger brother's name. Jhunia, the daughter of Bhola, was a widow and eloped with Gobar after she got pregnant by him. Because of the fear of the action from villagers Gobar also ran away to the town. Hori and Dhania were unable to throw a girl carrying their son's child and gave her protection and accepted her as their daughter-in-law. The village Panchayat fines Hori as his wife tackles the personal attack of the Pandit on them for sheltering Jhunia. Hori again is compelled to take a loan and pay the penalty. Hori is in huge debt from local money lenders and eventually married off his daughter Rupa for mere 200 rupees to save his ancestral land from being auctioned because of his inability to pay land tax. But his determination to pay those 200 rupees and to have a cow to provide milk to his grand son, leads to Hori's death because of excessive work. When he is about to die, his wife Dhania took out all the money she had (1.25 Rupees) and made Hori pay the priest on behalf of (Godan) (cow donation). This eventually fulfils the traditional dream of Hori but still his desire to pay back the rupees 200 to his son- in-law and to have a cow to feed the milk to his grandson remain unfulfilled. Hori is shown as a typical poor peasant who is the victim of circumstances and possess all the deficiencies of common man but despite all this, he stands by his honesty, duties and judgement when time requires. He is shown dead partially satisfied and partially unsatisfied.

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