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[Articles & Opinions] Latin Phrases, Latin Sayings and Latin Abbreviations in English.

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Post time: 15-5-2019 12:12:14 Posted From Mobile Phone
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Editado por Pedro_P en 15-5-2019 01:51 AM

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▼  Many Latin phrases are still used in English, though generally more in written English than in spoken English. This page lists some of the more common phrases from Latin, with meanings, comments and contextual examples. Although you may not need to use Latin phrases yourself, it's useful to recognise them when you come across them.
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▼ Latin phrase: meaning / example or comment:

• ad hoc: formed or done for a particular purpose only / An ad hoc committee was set up to oversee the matter.

• ad nauseam: repeating or continuing to the point of boredom / The apparent risks of secondary smoking have been debated ad nauseam.

• bona fide: genuine; real / Only bona fide members of the club may use the clubhouse.

• caveat emptor: let the buyer beware / The principle that the buyer is responsible for checking the quality and suitability of goods before a purchase is made.

• circa; c.; around; approximately  / The house was built circa 1870.

• coitus interruptus: interrupted congress; aborting sexual intercourse prior to ejaculation / Coitus interruptus is the only form of birth control that some religions allow.

• compos mentis: in control of the mind (often used ironically) / Please call me back later when I'm compos mentis.

• de facto: in fact; in reality / Although the Emperor was the head of state, the de facto ruler of Japan was the Shogun.

• ergo: therefore / cogito ergo sum

• erratum: error; mistake / Lists of errors from a previous publication are often marked "errata" (the plural, meaning errors).

• et cetera; etc: and the rest; and so on; and more / We urgently need to buy medical equipment, drugs et cetera.

• ex gratia: from kindness or grace (without recognizing any liability or legal obligation) / They received an undisclosed ex gratia payment.

• ex libris: from the books; fromthe library / In the front of a book: Ex Libris John Brown

• habeas corpus: a court order instructing that a person under arrest be brought before a judge ?/ The right of habeas corpus has long been regarded as an important safeguard of individual liberty.

• in loco parentis: in the place of a parent / Teachers sometimes have to act in loco parentis.

• in situ: in its original place / The paintings have been taken to the museum but the statues have been left in situ.

• in vitro: (in biology) taking place outside a living organism (for example in a test tube) / in vitro fertilization

• inter alia: among other things / The report covers, inter alia, computers, telecommunications and air travel.

• per: for each / This petrol station charges $5.00 per gallon.

• per annum; p.a.: for each year / The population is increasing by about 2% per annum.

• per capita: for each person / The country's annual income is $5000 per capita.

• per se: in itself/themselves; intrinsically / These facts per se are not important.

• post-mortem: examination of a body after death; autopsy / The post-mortem revealed that she had been murdered.

• pro rata: proportional; proportionally / The car rental charge is $50 per day and then pro rata for part of a day.

• quid pro quo: favour or advantage given or expected in return for something / Similar to "tit for tat", "give and take" and "You scratch my back and I'll scratch yours."

• re: about; concerning; regarding / Re: Unpaid Invoice

I spoke to the manager re your salary increase.

• sine qua non: essential condition; thing that is absolutely necessary; "without which not" / Words are a sine qua non of spoken language.

• status quo: existing state of affairs / Monarchies naturally wish to maintain the status quo.

• terra firma: dry land; the ground as opposed to the air or sea / Shackleton and his men set foot on terra firma after three weeks at sea.

• verbatim: in exactly the same words / I had to memorize the text verbatim.

• versus; vs.; v.: against / What are the benefits of organic versus inorganic foods?

In the case of Bush versus Gore, the judges decided...

• vice versa: the other way round / My telephone serves me, and not vice versa.

• persona non grata: unacceptable or unwelcome person / From now on, you may consider yourself persona non grata in this house.

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▼ Latin Sayings in English
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Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?

Carpe diem!

• "Seize the day!"

An exclamation urging someone to make the most of the present time and not worry about the future.

• Cogito ergo sum.

"I think, therefore I am."

French philosopher Descartes' famous formula of 1641 attempting to prove his own existence.

• Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori.

"It is a sweet and glorious thing to die for one's country."

From Horace, Odes III, 2, 13. Used by Wilfred Owen for the title of his anti-war poem Dulce et  Decorum Est.

• Festina lente.

"Hurry slowly."

An oxymoron- similar to "more haste, less speed".

• in vino veritas

"in wine, truth"

(meaning that a drunk man reveals the truth about himself)

• Nil desperandum.

"Do not despair."

• per ardua ad astra

"through struggle to the stars"

(motto of the Royal Air Force and others)

• Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?

"Who shall guard the guards?"

• quod erat demonstrandum (QED)

"which was to be demonstrated"

The abbreviation is often written after a mathematical proof.

• Tempus fugit.

"Time flies."

• Veni, vidi, vici.

"I came, I saw, I conquered."

The report sent by Julius Caesar to the Roman Senate after his battle in 47 BC against King Pharnaces II.
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▼ Latin Abbreviations:

Many Latin abbreviations are still used in English today, though usually in writing. This page lists some of the more common Latin abbreviations, with meanings and explanations. Although you may not need to use Latin abbreviations yourself, it's useful to be able to recognise them.

Here are seven Latin abbreviations that you have certainly seen and probably know because we use these ones all the time. Their full forms and meanings are given below.

*.A.M., P.M. / B.A., B.Sc. / e.g., i.e. / P.S.

*.A.D. (anno domini): in the year of the Lord

*.ad inf., ad infin. (ad infinitum): to infinity

*.A.M. (ante meridiem): before midday

*.B.A. (Baccalaureus Artium): Bachelor of Arts

*.B.D. (Baccalaureus Divinitatis): Bachelor of Divinity

*.B.L. (Baccalaureus Legum): Bachelor of Law

*.B.Lit. (Baccalaureus Lit[t]erarum): Bachelor of Literature (or Letters)

*.B.M. (Baccalaureus Medicinae):Bachelor of Medicine

*.B.Mus. (Baccalaureus Musicae): Bachelor of Music

*.B.Phil. (Baccalaureus Philosophiae):Bachelor of Philosophy

*.B.S., B.Sc. (Baccalaureus Scientiae): Bachelor of Science

*.c., circ.: circa

*.cf. (confer): compare

*.D.D. (Divinitatis Doctor): Doctor of Divinity

*.D.G. (Dei Gratia): By the grace of God

*.D.Lit. (Doctor Litterarum): Doctor of Literature

*.D.M. (Doctor Medicinae): Doctor of Medicine

*.D.V. (Deo volente): God willing

*.e.g. (exempli gratia): for example

*.et al. (et alii, et alia): and others

*.etc. (et cetera): and the rest, and so forth

*.et seq. (et sequens, et sequentes, et sequentia): and the following

*.id. (idem):the same

*.i.e. (id est): that is

*.lb. (libra): pound

*.M.A. (Magister Artium): Master of Arts

*.M.D. (Medicinae Doctor): Doctor of Medicine

*.M.O. (modus operandi): method of operating

*.N.B. (Nota bene): Note well

*.no. (numero): by number

*.non obst. (non obstante): notwithstanding

*.non seq. (non sequitur): it does not follow

*.p.d. (per diem): by the day

*.p.a.: per annum

*.Ph.D. (Philosophiae Doctor): Doctor of Philosophy

*.P.M. (post meridiem): after midday

*.P.S. (post scriptum): written after

*.Q.E.D.: quod erat  demonstrandum

*.R. (rex, regina): King, Queen

*.R.I.P. (Requiescat in pace): Rest in peace

*.sic (sic erat scriptum): thus was it written

*.v., vs.: versus

*.vox pop. (vox populi): the voice of the people

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